Publications

     

Specificity of basic information processing and inhibitory control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

G. A. Salum and J. Sergeant and E. Sonuga-Barke and J. Vandekerckhove and A. Gadelha and P. M. Pan and T. S. Moriyama and A. S. Graeff-Martins and P. Gomes de Alvarenga and M. C. do Rosario and G. G. Manfro and G. Polanczyk and L. A. P. Rohde Background
Both inhibitory-based executive functioning (IB-EF) and basic information processing (BIP) deficits are found in clinic-referred attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) samples. However, it remains to be determined whether: (1) such deficits occur in non-referred samples of ADHD; (2) they are specific to ADHD; (3) the co-morbidity between ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) has additive or interactive effects; and (4) IB-EF deficits are primary in ADHD or are due to BIP deficits.
Method
We assessed 704 subjects (age 6-12 years) from a non-referred sample using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) and classified them into five groups: typical developing controls (TDC; n = 378), Fear disorders (n = 90), Distress disorders (n = 57), ADHD (n = 100), ODD/CD (n = 40) and ADHD+ODD/CD (n = 39). We evaluated neurocognitive performance with a Two-Choice Reaction Time Task (2C-RT), a Conflict Control Task (CCT) and a Go/No-Go (GNG) task. We used a diffusion model (DM) to decompose BIP into processing efficiency, speed-accuracy trade-off and encoding/motor function along with variability parameters.
Results
Poorer processing efficiency was found to be specific to ADHD. Faster encoding/motor function differentiated ADHD from TDC and from fear/distress whereas a more cautious (not impulsive) response style differentiated ADHD from both TDC and ODD/CD. The co-morbidity between ADHD and ODD/CD reflected only additive effects. All ADHD-related IB-EF classical effects were fully moderated by deficits in BIP.
Conclusions
Our findings challenge the IB-EF hypothesis for ADHD and underscore the importance of processing efficiency as the key specific mechanism for ADHD pathophysiology.
DOI: 10.1017/S0033291713000639

Citation

Salum, G. A., Sergeant, J. A., Sonuga-Barke, E., Vandekerckhove, J., Gadelha, A., Pan, P. M., Moriyama, T. S., Graeff-Martins, A. S., Gomes de Alvarenga, P., do Rosario, M. C., Manfro, G. G., Polanczyk, G. V., & Rohde, L. A. P. (2014). Specificity of basic information processing and inhibitory control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychological Medicine, 44, 617–631.

BibTeX

@article{salum2014specificity,
  title     = {Specificity of basic information processing and inhibitory control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder},
  author    = {Salum, G. A. and Sergeant, J. A. and Sonuga-Barke, E. and Vandekerckhove, J. and Gadelha, A. and Pan, P. M. and Moriyama, T. S. and Graeff-Martins, A. S. and Gomes de Alvarenga, P. and do Rosario, M. C. and Manfro, G. G. and Polanczyk, G. V. and Rohde, L. A. P.},
  journal   = {Psychological Medicine},
  year      = {2014},
  volume    = {44},
  pages     = {617--631},
  doi       = {10.1017/S0033291713000639},
}